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《吳醫師保健養生堂第二十四講》 — 食療(二)吳宇琛
2023年11月07日 11:09 發布 編輯:Editor

 

食療(二)

吳宇琛

SUM WU

 

Sum Wu

Registered Chinese Medicine Practitioner

Bachelor of Health Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine (UTS)

Bachelor of Science Majoring in Psychology (UOW)

Specialising in pain management and mental wellbeing through Tradition Chinese medicine in combination with modern science in mental health, dieting and nutrition.

 

吳宇琛,澳洲政府註冊中醫師、針灸師,五龍崗大學心理學學士、悉尼科技大學中醫系學士,擅長用傳統針灸理傷手法和中藥治療各種新舊損傷痛症,特別採用中醫中藥和現代心理學、營養學相結合調理治療各種慢性病和亞健康。

 

 

Previously we touched on some basic ideas in TCM food therapy such as the 5 flavours and how the ancient practitioners came up with a dietary system based on balancing a variety of food groups for maximum dietary nutrients as well as employing TCM theory to assist in health maintenance.

之前我們簡單介紹了中醫食療的一些基本理念,例如五味,以及古代中醫如何提出平衡多種食物以獲得最大膳食營養的飲食系統,並運用中醫理論來輔助保持身體健康。

 

What I would like to talk about today is an extension of the previous ideas where certain foods based on its flavour, nature (warm, hot, cool and cold) and how they affect the organs and channel systems.

我今天想談的是之前想法的延伸,也就是某些食物基於其味道、性質(溫、熱、涼、寒)以及它們如何影響器官和經絡系統。

 

Besides this aforementioned factors there also a number of etiological factors that we need to consider when it comes to the right food therapy. These are divided into 3 categories: Climate and Time-oriented, locality-oriented and individual-oriented. This means to achieve the best possible therapeutic effect then we must select foods that are specifically tailored to an individuals constitution, their age and gender as well as their region as well as how the climate is affecting them and the environment.

除了上述因素外,在采取正確的食物療法時,我們還需要考慮許多病因因素。這些分為三類:氣候和時間導向、地點導向和個人導向(因時、因地、因人製宜)。這意味著為了達到最佳的治療效果,我們必須選擇適合個人體質、年齡、性別、地區以及氣候如何影響他們和環境的食物。

 

Lets start off with Climate and Time. As there are four seasons in a year they are also split between warm, hot, cool and cold just like the properties of food and herbal medicine and as such we must also adjust accordingly to the seasons when providing medicinal treatment and foods as well. Naturally we all tend to eat more cold foods when it’s hot and warmer foods in the winter season.

讓我們從氣候和時間開始,一年有四個季節,就像食物和草藥的性質一樣,也有溫、熱、涼、寒之分,因此我們在用藥和食物方面也必須根據季節進行調整。當然,在溫暖的季節我們會傾向於吃寒涼的食物,而在冬季,我們會傾向於吃更多溫熱的食物。

 

To elaborate further, starting from Spring. This is the seasons associated with sowing and growth and TCM it is a good time to nourish the body and in accordance with the 5 elements we should be soothing the liver as Liver Qi tends to rise during this time, as spring is of the wood element and which is also the element of Liver. For example Chinese Chives is Spicy and warm in nature. The spicy flavour helps disperse liver Qi and its warm nature helps warm the yang and tonify the weak. At the same time it is recommended to reduce sour foods and increase sweet feeds. This is due to sour foods can lead to increased Liver Qi while the sweet foods like Chinese Yam and sweet potato will tonify the spleen.

進一步闡述,從春季開始,是播種和生長的季節,中醫認為這是滋補身體的好時機,根據五行,我們應該疏肝,因為這個時候肝氣容易上升,因為春季五行屬木,肝亦是木性。例如韭菜,辛辣的味道有助於分散肝氣,其溫暖的性質有助於暖陽和補弱。同時中醫會建議減少食用酸味的食物,增加甜食。這是因為酸味食物可以增強肝氣,而山藥、紅薯等甘味食物可以補脾。

 

During the Summer months the temperature will be hot and here we will generally see an increase in heat related illness and of course this will be treated with coldness. Foods that can clear heat, nourish the Yin and promote moisture like watermelon and mung beans are essential during this period. It is recommended to reduce bitter foods as it is drying and add a bit spicier food to benefit the lung. Towards the tail end of Summer, we also see a lot of damp conditions so it is also important to eat more foods that invigorate the spleen and eliminate dampness such as Fu Ling or Winter Melon (this particular food is a perfect example of correct food therapy as it is cool in nature, is sweet and helps eliminate dampness).

在夏季,氣溫會很熱,我們通常會看到與熱有關的疾病增加,當然可以用寒性食物來治療。西瓜、綠豆等清熱、滋陰、利濕的食物在此期間必不可少。建議少吃苦味食物,因為會讓身體變乾燥,適當增加一點辛辣食物,以利肺。夏末的時候,濕氣會比較重,多吃健脾祛濕的食物也很重要,比如茯苓、冬瓜這種食物就是正確食療的最佳例子,性涼,味甘,祛濕。

 

During Autumn the air starts to cool and turn dry and is time to nourish the lungs with foods that moisten the body such as pears, lily bulbs and Loquat (Pi Pa). During these months Liver Qi tends to stagnate so foods that are sour and less spicy will benefit the Liver Qi.

秋季空氣開始涼爽乾燥,適宜吃梨、百合、枇杷等潤肺食物。這幾個月肝氣容易郁結,所以吃酸、少辣的食物有利於肝氣。

 

Finally during the Winter months we must expel cold with heat so naturally we would be eating more war and hot foods such as lamb and beef.

最後,冬季必須以熱祛寒,自然要多吃羊肉、牛肉等熱性食物。

 

The next etiological factor is a bit more complicated and sometimes harder to adjust to. Locality-orientated refers to using foods based on the region where you are currently living in as the location can affect the temperature and climate as well. If someone is from a cold and dry place then there is a prevalence of cold and dryness and you may find that they eat a lot more spicy and nourishing foods to fight the cold and nourish the lungs from dryness. People living in places that are hot and humid will benefit greatly foods that can cool and expel dampness like the Winter Melon previously mentioned. In Australia we are a bit lucky as the seasons are not too extreme and with an abundance of foods that grow all year there is less problems with finding the appropriate ingredients.

下一個病因因素相對比較複雜,有時比較難以調節。地域性是指根據當前居住的地區使用食物,因為位置也會影響溫度和氣候。如果一個人來自寒冷乾燥的地方,那麽寒燥盛行,你會發現他們會吃很多辛辣、滋補的食物來禦寒、潤肺燥。生活在炎熱潮濕的地方的人,吃一些像前面提到的冬瓜這樣清涼祛濕的食物大有裨益。在澳大利亞的我們是比較幸運的,因為季節不太極端,而且全年都有豐富的食物,因此找到合適食材的問題較少。

 

During my last year of university, I interned at Chengdu University Traditional Chinese Medicine and the climate in Chengdu at that time was very cold and damp. Chengdu is located in a basin area so naturally all the cold air and dampness accumulates at the bottom of the basin where the city is located. One of the local staples is hot and numbing hotpot and spicy foods. Even the meat buns are made using peppercorn water. Normally if I was to eat spicy food on a daily basis then it would very quickly to excess heat and heat related illnesses but the local climate was very cold and damp, the spicy food actually helps my body from building up too much cold and dampness. The spiciness of the food warms the body and also disperse dampness.

大學最後一年,我在成都中醫藥大學實習,當時成都的氣候非常寒冷和潮濕。成都地處盆地,自然所有的冷空氣和濕氣都聚集在城市所在的盆地底部。當地的主食之一是麻辣燙的火鍋和辛辣的食物。連肉包子都是用花椒水做的。一般來說,如果我每天吃辛辣的食物,那麽很快就會導致實熱和與熱有關的疾病,但當地的氣候非常寒冷和潮濕,辛辣的食物實際上可以幫助我的身體避免過多的寒濕。食物的辛辣可以溫暖身體,還能祛濕。

 

Finally, we have foods that are individual-oriented. These foods are specifically chosen based on the person’s constitution, age and lifestyle. For example if someone’s constitution is Yang deficient then they would benefit more from warm foods such as red meat and congee. People who are Yin deficient will need to eat more foods that are nourishing like soups using Mai Dong or eating more oats and black beans. Qi deficient individuals can benefit greatly from soups made with Ginseng and Huang Qi as they tonify Qi and if someone is too damp then something like congee made with Yi Yi Ren and Chinese Yam can help eliminate the dampness while strengthening the spleen.

最後,我們說說針對個人的食物。這些食物是根據人的體質、年齡和生活方式專門選擇的。例如,如果某人體質為陽虛,那麽他們更適合吃紅肉和粥等溫熱食物。陰虛的人需要多吃一些滋補的食物,比如麥冬湯或者多吃燕麥、黑豆。氣虛的人可以喝人參、黃芪湯,因為它們可以補氣,如果身體太濕,可以喝薏苡仁、山藥等粥,可以祛濕健脾。

 

Other associated factors include age. There is a saying that we should not invigorate Yang in children as they already have an abundance of Yang Qi and usually they tend towards the heat illness so cooling foods would be more appropriate than Yang warming foods while someone who is old and fragile will be the reverse and would function better with warmer foods. Obviously this is not set in stone and each individual at any given moment is different in what they require.

其他相關因素包括年齡。有句話說,小兒不宜補陽,因為他們陽氣本來就盛,容易生熱病,所以涼性食物比溫陽食物更合適,而年老體弱的人則宜吃熱性食物。顯然這些選擇並不是一成不變的,每個人在任何特定時刻的需求都是不同的。

 

This is but a brief introduction to food therapy in TCM as it can be as complex as treating someone with herbs or acupuncture but I hope it has broadened your view on foods.

這裏只是中醫食療的簡要介紹,因為它可能像用中藥或針灸治療某人一樣複雜,但我希望它能拓寬大家對食物的看法。

 

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(吳宇琛中醫師,澳洲政府註冊中醫師、針灸師,五龍崗大學心理學學士、悉尼科技大學中醫系學士,悉尼好思维松轩药行主治中医师,本文僅供參考,具體診療應諮詢專業人士。)