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《吳醫師保健養生堂第二十二講》 — 食療(一)吳宇琛
2023年10月24日 13:26 發布 編輯:Editor

食療(一)

吳宇琛
SUM WU

Sum Wu

Registered Chinese Medicine Practitioner

Bachelor of Health Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine (UTS)

Bachelor of Science Majoring in Psychology (UOW)

Specialising in pain management and mental wellbeing through Tradition Chinese medicine in combination with modern science in mental health, dieting and nutrition.

吳宇琛,澳洲政府註冊中醫師、針灸師,五龍崗大學心理學學士、悉尼科技大學中醫系學士,擅長用傳統針灸理傷手法和中藥治療各種新舊損傷痛症,特別採用中醫中藥和現代心理 學、營養學相結合調理治療各種慢性病及亞健康。

In Traditional Chinese medicine food therapy is a major and integral facet of treatment. The 3 main modalities of TCM in Australia is Acupuncture, Herbal medicine and Tuina. Those who been treated with TCM should be very familiar with these 3 modalities and in a lot of cases it could be a combination of these treatments but one very important aspect that a lot of people, and sometimes even practitioners, might not put too much emphasis on is in the food we eat.

在中醫中,食療是治療的一個主要且不可或缺的方面。 澳洲中醫的三種主要治療方式是針灸、中藥和按摩。 接受過中醫治療的人應該對這3種治療方式有所熟悉,在很多情況下,它可能是這些治療方法的組合,但有一個非常重要的方面,很多人有時甚至是中醫師,可能不會 特別注意的一個方面就是我們的每日飲食。

At its very core, food or at least the ingredients and the way it is prepared, is no different to prescribing an herbal formula and often times illness can just be treated as easily with the correct diet, hence the term food therapy.

從本質上講食物,也就是它的原料和烹飪方式,與中草藥配方沒有什麼不同,通常可以透過正確的飲食輕鬆治療疾病,所以稱為食物療法。

On the surface food therapy aims to maintain balance of nutrition through diet with some goals such as losing weight or staying healthy but when combined with TCM principles then we have what is called a medical diet therapy which is a combination of nutrition and medicine. Both of these concepts are related but also distinct in some ways. Eating healthy and delicious food is naturally good for the body and mind but taking it 1 step further where the food is the medicine and the processes of cooking in taken into consideration to maximise the benefits of the food is the essence of food therapy.

食療表面上是透過飲食來維持營養平衡,達到減重、維持健康等目的,但結合中醫原理,就是營養與藥物結合的醫學食療。 這兩個概念既相關又在某些方面有所不同,吃健康美味的食物自然對身心都有好處,但更進一步,以食物為藥,考慮烹飪過程,最大限度地發揮食物的功效,這就是 食療的本質。

In the early history of TCM there are many chapters in classical texts such as Canon of the Yellow Emperor, Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Invaluable Prescriptions for Ready Reference, and Principles of Correct Diet that go into detail about the importance of the correct diet in maintaining general wellbeing as well as its treatment of diseases and plays a major role in human physiology and pathology. An example found in Su Wen (also known as Basic Questions), discusses the benefits of grains that are boiled in soup to nourish the 5 Zhang Organs (Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lung and Kidney). These grains would then be processed further for easier consumption.

在中醫早期的歷史中,《黃帝內經》、《神農本草經》、《千金要方》、《飲食要則》等經典典籍中,都有很多章節詳細闡述了正確飲食的重要性、維持身體健康 並且治療疾病,在人類生理和病理學中扮演重要角色。 《素問》中的一個例子,討論了用五穀煮湯來滋養五臟(心、肝、脾、肺、腎)的好處,接著這些穀物被進一步烹飪以便於食用。

In today’s society, our standard of living has seen unprecedented growth with a lot of focus on prolonging life and health through medicine, supplements, exercise, better hygiene and as our life gets easier and life expectancy increases our perspective shifts from curative treatments to preventative health. So what exactly can we learn from food therapy and TCM?

在當今社會,我們的生活水平得到了前所未有的提高,人們非常注重透過藥物、補充劑、運動、更好的衛生習慣來延長生命和健康,隨著我們的生活變得更加輕鬆,預期壽命增加, 我們的觀點從治癒性治療轉向預防性保健,那麼我們到底能從食療和中醫學到什麼呢?

From Su Wen there is mention of a group of important food groups. The Five Grains (rice, brown rice, soya beans, wheat, millet) provide nourishment. The Five Fruits (dates, plum, chestnut, apricot, peach) to assist. The Five Livestock (beef, dog meat, pork, lamb, chicken) provide enrichment. The Five vegetables (marrow, chive, bean sprouts, shallot, onion) to supplement.

《素問》中提到了一組重要的食物:五穀(米、糙米、黃豆、小麥、小米)提供營養;五果(棗子、李、栗、杏、桃)提供輔助;五畜(牛肉、狗肉 、豬肉、羊肉、雞肉)提供強化;五菜(葫蘆、韭菜、豆芽、蔥、洋蔥)提供補充。

What does this passage mean exactly? The greater context of this chapter is that when our body is not besieged by illness or it is being managed via medicine or treatment then we can supplement and improve our chances of recovery through eating grains, meat, fruits and vegetables. Rather than over reliance of taking medicine for minor issues we may be able to get well through eating. The 5 grains to nourish refers to millet, soya, wheat, rice and brown rice. Grains is nourishing in nature and a main staple in our diet. The traditional Chinese character for Qi actually comes from the character for rice combined with air as it symbolises the vapour and steam from cooking rice to evoke the flow and energy of Qi.

這段話到底是什麼意思? 本章的大背景是,當我們的身體沒有受到疾病的困擾或正在服用藥物或治療時,我們可以透過吃穀物、肉類、水果和蔬菜來補充和增加康復的機會。 我們也許可以透過飲食來康復,而不是過度依賴藥物來解決身體上的小問題。 五穀是指小米、黃豆、小麥、米、糙米。 穀物具有營養價值,是我們飲食中的主要主食。 漢字繁體字「氣」其實來自「米」與「氣」的組合,象徵炊具中米飯的水蒸氣和蒸汽,以喚起「氣」的流動和能量。

The other mentioned food groups play a complementary role to the grains and it is through a careful balanced portions of each food group to maintain normal function in our bodies. Portion and eating habits are also important in food therapy. Naturally it is not advisable to starve or eat to excess as either of these can lead to illness. If we over eat then our stomach and intestines would be impaired by over consumption which can lead to symptoms such as bloating and indigestions and starvation can lead to anaemia and other illnesses. This is also very similar to modern day nutritional advice.

其他的食物對穀物起著補充作用,透過仔細平衡每種食物的比例來維持我們身體的正常功能。 份量和飲食習慣在食療中也很重要。 當然,不建議挨餓或吃得過多,因為這兩種情況都會導致疾病。 如果我們吃太多,那麼我們的腸胃就會因過度消耗而受損,進而導致腹脹、消化不良等症狀,而飢餓會導致貧血和其他疾病。 這也與現代的營養建議非常相似。

Naturally we cannot talk about TCM without also talking about the natural properties of the herb or in this case the food. Like herbs, foods are also categorised as warm, hot, cool and cold. By its nature, warm or hot foods is good for the spleen and stomach and are used for dispelling coldness, invigorating the spleen and stomach and also reinforcing the kidney Yang. So if someone is suffering from Yang deficiency syndromes then eating more warm natured foods which will help reduce these symptoms.

當然,我們不能在不談論草藥或食物的天然特性的情況下談論中醫。 與草藥一樣,食物也分為溫性、熱性、涼性和寒性。 溫性或熱性食物本質上有益於脾胃,具有散寒、健脾和胃、補腎陽的作用。 因此,如果有人患有陽虛證,那麼多吃一些溫性食物將有助於減輕這些症狀。

So what are warm or hot foods? This does not necessarily mean the temperature of the food but its physical nature. Food such as glutinous rice, red dates, longan etc are warm while foods such as lamb, beef, cinnamon and chilli etc are hot.

那什麼是溫熱食物呢? 這並不一定意味著食物的溫度,而是它的天然屬性。 糯米、紅棗、桂圓等屬於溫性食物,羊肉、牛肉、肉桂、辣椒等屬於熱性食物。

On the other hand we have cool and cold foods are foods that have a cooling and cleansing effect and moistens and detoxifies and these foods will benefit someone with a Yin deficiency or excess of Yang. These foods can help reduce symptoms such as dry mouth, fevers and constipation etc. The most common cool or cold foods are watermelon, chrysanthemum, mung beans and bitter melon just to name a few.

另一方面,涼性食物是具有清涼、潤燥、解毒作用的食物,這些食物對陰虛或陽盛的人有好處。 這些食物可以幫助減輕口乾、發燒、便秘等症狀。 最常見的涼性或寒性食物有西瓜、菊花、綠豆和苦瓜等。

Another aspect of picking the right food is the Five Flavours. These are Spicy, Sweet, Salty, Bitter and Sour. In TCM we talk about these flavours as they each interact and enter different organs. Spicy food goes to the lungs, Sweet food to the spleen, Salty foods to the kidneys, Bitterness to the heart and Sour foods to the liver.

選擇正確食物的另一個方面是五種味道。 這些是辣、甘/甜、鹹、苦、酸。 在中醫中,我們談論這些味道,因為它們相互作用並進入不同的器官。 辛食入肺,甘食入脾,鹹食入腎,苦食入心,酸食入肝。

Spicy is dispersing and promoting the circulation of Qi and Blood. They are generally indicated for use in treating exterior syndromes due to invasion of exogenous pathogenic factors and also for syndromes of Qi and Blood stagnation.

辣具有行氣行血的作用。 一般用於治療外邪侵襲所致的表證及氣血瘀滯症。

Sweet is nourishing, harmonising and moistening. They are generally indicated for deficiency syndromes, disharmony between Spleen and Stomach, some pain syndromes, constipation due to Heat in the intestines and cough due to Lung-Heat.

甘味滋補、調和、潤燥。 一般用於虛證、脾胃不和、某些痛證、腸熱便秘、肺熱咳嗽等。

Salty flavour have the action of softening hard nodules or masses, and promoting defecation and urination. As such they are often used for scrofula, superficial nodules, abdominal masses and internal accumulation of dry stool.

鹹味具有軟化硬結、腫塊、通便、排尿的作用。 故常用於瘰癧、結節、瘕塊、大便乾結等症。

Bitter flavoured herbs have the actions of drying or resolving dampness, purging and lowering. They have a wide range of uses and are frequently applied in the treatment of constipation due to fire-heat, dysphoria, coughing due to rebellious Lung Qi, Damp-Heat or Cold-Damp syndrome.

苦味藥具有燥濕、瀉下的作用。 用途廣泛,常用於治療火熱便秘、心煩、肺氣逆咳、濕熱寒濕證等。

Sour flavour have absorbing, consolidating and astringent actions. They are commonly used to treat incessant sweating, chronic cough, chronic diarrhoea, spermatorrhoea, enuresis, prolonged metrorrhagia, metrostaxis and leukorrhea caused by loss of essence due to qi deficiency.

酸味具有收澀、固澀的作用。 常用於治療氣虛精虧所致的汗出不止、久咳、久瀉、遺精、遺尿、崩漏久下、崩漏、帶下等症。

This is important when coming up with a suitable diet as the flavours play a very important role on how the food will interact with the body and illnesses. For example if the flavour is too sour (wood)then it can lead to excess of Liver Qi and damage the Spleen Qi (earth) leading to dampness as the spleen is impaired. If it is too salty (water) it will damage the Kidney Qi and can lead to muscle fatigue and weakness as well as impair heart (fire) function. Too sweet and the chest will feel full and difficulty breathing, bitterness can lead to stagnation in spleen and stomach qi and causing abdominal distensions while foods that is overly spicy can lead to weakness in tendons. These are just some examples of how the 5 flavours can affect the body and in most cases a health body will be fine but if someone is already ill then picking the wrong foods can lead to prolonged or worsened illness.

在製定合適的飲食時,這一點很重要,因為食物的味道對於食物與身體和疾病的相互作用起著非常重要的作用。 例如味道過酸,就會導致肝氣上盛,傷及脾氣,導致脾虛生濕。 如果太鹹,會損傷腎氣,導致肌肉疲勞無力,並損害心臟功能。 過甜則胸悶、呼吸困難;過苦則導致脾胃氣滯,引起腹脹;過辣則導致筋疲力盡。 這些只是食物的5 種味道如何影響身體的一些例子,在大多數情況下,健康的身體會自我調節,但如果一個人已經生病了,那麼選擇錯誤的食物可能會導致病情延長或惡化。

如有疑問想諮詢小吳醫師,可以在微信或whatsapp搜尋0404836368,加小吳醫師微信或whatsapp,也可以發短信或致電0404836368作語音留言,小吳醫師有空就會回复。

(吳宇琛中醫師,澳洲政府註冊中醫師、針灸師,五龍崗大學心理學學士、悉尼科技大學中醫系學士,悉尼好思維松軒藥行主治中醫師,本文僅供參考,具體診療應諮詢專業 人士。)